Nūhou ʻoihana

Popularize wela nā mea ʻike

2021-04-09
Kuhikuhi ke ana wela i kahi mea ʻike i hiki ke ʻike i ka mahana a hoʻololi iā ia i hōʻailona hōʻailona hoʻohana. ʻO ka mea ʻike i ka mahana ka mahele nui o ka mea ana wela, a he nui nā ʻano. Wahi a ke ana ana, hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia i ʻelua mau ʻāpana: ʻano hoʻopili a me ka ʻano pilina ʻole. Wahi a nā ʻano o nā mea mīkini a me nā pono uila, hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia i ʻelua mau ʻano: ke kūmau wela a me ka thermocouple.

Hoʻokaʻina nui

Hoʻokaʻaʻike
ʻO ka ʻāpana ʻike o ke kiʻina pāmahana hoʻopili e hoʻopili maikaʻi me ka mea i ana ʻia, a i ʻike ʻia he thermometer.
Loaʻa ka thermometer i ke kaulike kaulike ma o ka conduction a i ʻole ka convection, i hiki i ke kumukūʻai o ka thermometer ke kuhikuhi pololei i ka mahana o ka mea i ana ʻia. ʻO ka maʻamau, kiʻekiʻe ke ana ʻana. I loko o kekahi ana ana mahana, hiki i ka thermometer ke ana i ka mahele o ka mahana i loko o ka mea. Akā no nā mea neʻe, nā māka liʻiliʻi a i ʻole nā ​​mea me ka liʻiliʻi o ka wela, e loaʻa nā hewa nui ana. ʻO nā thermometers i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia e hoʻopili me nā thermometers bimetallic, thermometers wai aniani, nā thermometers puʻe, thermometers resistence, thermistors, a me thermocouples. Hoʻohana ākea lākou i nā ʻāpana e like me ka ʻoihana, ka mahiʻai, a me ke kālepa. Hoʻohana pinepine ka poʻe i kēia mau thermometers i ke ola o kēlā me kēia lā. Me ka hoʻohana ākea o ka ʻenehana cryogenic i ka ʻenekini pale kūloko, ʻenehana ākea, metallurgy, uila uila, meaʻai, lāʻau lapaʻau, petrochemical a me nā ʻāpana ʻē aʻe a me ka noiʻi o ka ʻenehana superconducting, hoʻomohala ʻia nā thermometers cryogenic ma lalo o 120K, e like me nā thermometers gas thermometer puʻupuʻu puʻuwai, thermometer acoustic, thermometer paʻakai paramagnetic, thermometer quantum, haʻahaʻa wela mehana thermocouple, a pēlā aku. koi ʻia nā thermometers pāmahana haʻahaʻa i ka liʻiliʻi, kiʻekiʻe pololei, reproducibility maikaʻi a paʻa. Ke carburized aniani mehana ia'ku i ka porous kiʻekiʻe silica aniani carburized a me ka sintered mea heʻano o ka wela sensing hehee ai o ka haʻahaʻa wela thermometer, i hiki ke hoʻohana e ana i ka mahana ma ka laulā o 1.6 a 300K.
Hoʻokaʻaʻikeless
ʻAʻole hoʻopili aku kāna mau mea pilikino i kekahi i kekahi me ka mea ana ʻia, a ua kapa ʻia ia he meahana ana wela mahana ʻole. Hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia kēia ʻano mea kani e ana i ka mahana o ka neʻe ʻana o nā mea neʻe, nā māka liʻiliʻi a me nā mea me ka hikiwawe o ka wela a i ʻole nā ​​hoʻololi wela wikiwiki (transient), a hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia hoʻi e ana i ka mahele o ka mahanahana o ka pāhana pāmahana.
Hoʻohana ʻia ka mea ana wela pāhana ʻole i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia ma ke kānāwai kumu o ka pāhawewe kino ʻeleʻele a ua kapa ʻia he mea hana ana wela mahana. ʻO ka thermometry radiation kekahi me ke ʻano luminance (e nānā i ka pyrometer ʻōnika), ke ʻano radiation (e nānā i ka radiation pyrometer) a me ke ʻano colorimetric (e nānā i ka thermometer colorimetric). Hiki ke ana ʻia nā ʻano ana wela pāhawewe āpau i ke ana wela luminosity, ka pāhawewe pāwela a me ka mahana colorimetric. ʻO ke ana wela wale nō i ana ʻia no ke kino ʻeleʻele (kahi mea e omo i nā pāhawewe āpau a hōʻike ʻole i ke kukui) ka wela maoli. Inā makemake ʻoe e hoʻoholo i ka mahana maoli o kahi mea, pono ʻoe e hoʻoponopono i ka emissivity o nā mea. ʻO ka emissivity o kahi mea ʻaʻole pili wale i ka mahana a me ka lōʻihi o ka lōʻihi, akā i ka pae o ka honua, ka uhi ʻana i ke kiʻi ʻoniʻoni a me ka microstructure, no laila paʻakikī e ana pono. I ka hana hana automate, pono pinepine ia e hoʻohana i ke ana wela o ka pāhawewe e ana a kāohi ai i ka wela o luna o kekahi mau mea, e like me ke ana wela e hao ana i ke kila, ka mahana o ka wili, ka mahana wela a me ka mahana o nā metala hoʻoheheʻe ʻia i nā umu hoʻoheheʻe a i ʻole nā ​​ipu kīhāpai i metallurgy. Ma lalo o kēia mau kūlana kikoʻī, paʻakikī loa ke ana ʻana o ka ʻeʻe emissivity o kahi mea. No ke ana ʻana a me ka kaohi o ka mahana o ka ʻili paʻa, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia kahi aniani hou aʻe e hana i kahi lua o ke kino ʻeleʻele me ka ʻāpana i ana ʻia. Hiki i ka hopena o ke radiation hou ke hoʻonui i ka radiation radiation a me ka coefficient emission pono o ka ʻilikai i ana ʻia. E hoʻohana i ka coefficient emission pono e hoʻoponopono i ke ana wela i ana ʻia i ka mika, a loaʻa ka mahana maoli o ka pae i ana ʻia. ʻO ke aniani hou loa he aniani hemispherical. ʻO ka ikehu pāhawewe diffuse o ka ʻāpana i ana ʻia e kokoke ana i ke kikowaena o ka sphere i hōʻike ʻia i ka ʻilikai e ke aniani hemispherical e hana ai i kahi radiation hou, no laila e hoʻonui ana i ka coefficient emission pono, kahi ε ka emissivity o ka mea, a ʻo Ï ka ke aniani o ke aniani. E pili ana i ke ana radiation o ka wela maoli o ke kinoea a me ka pāpāho wai, hiki ke hoʻohana i ke ʻano o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i kahi paipu mea kūpahana i kahi hohonu e hana i kahi lua kino ʻeleʻele. ʻO ke koena pono o ka hoʻokuʻu ʻana o ka lua paukū ma hope o ka hōʻea ʻana i ke kaulike kaulike me ke kaulike e helu ʻia e ka helu ʻana. I ke ana a me ka kaohi akomi, hiki ke hoʻohana i kēia waiwai e hoʻoponopono i ke ana wela o ka lua i ana ʻia (ʻo ia hoʻi, ka mahana o ka waena) e loaʻa ai ka wela maoli o ka meahana.
 
Nā maikaʻi o ke ana wela ʻole hoʻopili: ʻAʻole palena ʻia ka palena kiʻekiʻe o ke ana ʻana e ka pale ʻana o ke ana wela o ka mea i ʻike ʻia ka mahana, no laila ʻaʻohe palena i ke ana wela i hiki ke ana ʻia i ke kumu. No nā mahana kiʻekiʻe ma luna o 1800 ° C, hoʻohana nui ʻia nā ʻano ana wela pāhana ʻole. Me ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka ʻenehana infrared, ua hoʻonui iki ʻia ke ana ʻana o ka pāhawewe mai ke kukui i ʻike ʻia i ka infrared. Ua ʻae ʻia mai lalo o 700 ° C a i ka mahana o ka lumi, a kiʻekiʻe loa ka hoʻonā.